The premises appear from the Bahrain WhatsApp Number List Ages, in the field of construction, with the need to separate the design from the realization as for the construction of the dome of the cathedral of Florence between 1377 and 1446. It is from 1930 that the Project management practices will really become more streamlined in some companies who believe they have unique expertise. It was after the war that a fully-fledged management model was really to be established, under the impetus of the PMI from 1969 in particular. Project management also extends to IS projects from the 1970s in direct translation of construction methods.

If we rely on the definitions of AFNOR or ISO, “a project is a set of coordinated and controlled activities with start and end dates, undertaken with the aim of achieving an objective. clearly defined with specific requirements such as time, cost and resource constraints. ” Organizations have generally structured themselves to perform tasks in an industrial repetitive fashion. However, globalization brings about a changing environment, and companies must regularly adapt by introducing new, unforeseen objectives: new offers, new tools, new methods. These objectives require the support of the entire organization, and the allocation of resources. With the project mode, companies could define these means, and dedicate resources thus undisturbed by “business as usual”.

Challenging by agile methods

We can no longer request an initial commitment on a specific perimeter for a given date. The construction of a computer tool is part of a general objective, but experience shows that it is futile to want to specify everything in detail from the start. The designs are then too theoretical, often incomplete and, by the time the project has developed them all, they become partly obsolete. This is why agile methods favor an iterative construction, based on experiments and frequent field feedback. This can make the decision maker feel insecure who only knows that he will have something at regular intervals, but it is more effective.


The budget allocation therefore becomes non-deterministic. We invest in subjects according to their time horizon. Investments in experiments in the evaluation and emergence phase, then allocation of a budget and fixed resources for a subject according to the expected value. The objective becomes to maximize the value produced under constraint. It is a form of return of the industrial approach in computer construction. Above all, we break the “build vs run” distinction inherent in projects. In fact, insofar as we build the IT product in small steps, by successive iterations, by often delivering, this product is “in run” very early and remains “in construction” for a very long time. In addition

From project mode to product mode

In computer science, so-called agile approaches were structured at the end of the 90s / beginning of the 2000s. They were opposed to the traditional method known as the “V-cycle” (or “waterfall” in English) and thus came to call into question some fundamentals of project mode: there is also a philosophical desire to break the dichotomy between the “cowboys” of the project and the “farmers” of the operation. The adage becomes “you build it, you run it”, you manage what you have built, and if you have built anything, you bear the consequences yourself. DEVOPS approaches also go in this direction.

This is how the proponents of agile approaches quickly recommended leaving the project mode in favor of a “product” mode. Rather than managing a set of construction projects and a set of maintenance applications, the company manages a portfolio of “products” to which it allocates resources as long as there is value in developing them. From the project mode revolution, we keep the idea that we need dedicated resources on a subject, and we keep the idea that the organization is reconfigured according to the objectives of the moment. On the other hand, we break the distinction between initial framing and execution on pre

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