According to the Slovenia WhatsApp Number List definition, “local authorities are legal persons governed by public law distinct from the State and as such benefit from legal and patrimonial autonomy. “. These communities appeared after the Second World War (from the constitution of 1946), were given general powers in 1982, then saw their powers finally clarified, with the rest of the entities (Departments, Regions, Municipalities) in the NOTRe law of 2015. This brief summary reminds us that the management of a territory remains complex and anchored in a history, with the possible geographical divisions of the time, as the Department reminds us. The three

administrative levels of the territory – called territorial or local authorities under common law – are therefore, since the constitutional revision of 2003, the Regions, Departments and Municipalities. Some large cities such as Paris, Marseille and Lyon are further divided into districts. The Communes were also at the origin of inter-municipal cooperation. The oldest cooperations appear from the law of March 22, 1890, with the Syndicat Intercommunal à Vocation Unique. These are used to manage the distribution of water or even electricity. Since then, with the NOTRe law and the MAPTAM law which precedes it, the municipalities have seen many possibilities of regrouping emerge. In fact, France alone accounts for 40% of the municipalities

Communities: A Management Tool

in Europe … To avoid this territorial fragmentation, both at the level of administration and the attractiveness of the territories in a globalized economy, the municipalities can come together for at least two reasons: pooling daily resources (eg: water, waste, etc.) or carrying out major projects together. All this takes place in a context of decentralization / deconcentration vis-à-vis the capital (with all its faults!), As well as strengthening on the European / world scene. By comparing the level of representativeness of the number of Insee Codes (unique identifiers of Municipalities, different from Postal Codes) according to 3 population thresholds (3,500, then 3,500 and finally 350,000), we see the significant weight of “small” municipalities on


the administrative level vis-à-vis the population which inhabits them. Distribution graph of municipalities by size 91% of municipalities have less than 3,500 inhabitants and represent 32% of the population. population graph by municipality size Following the agreement of the State (you still need a law to promulgate this), the municipalities can obtain to create together an EPCI (Public Establishment of Intercommunal Cooperation) with its own tax system. Concretely, the municipalities pool their resources (in particular tax revenue) to organize essential daily services. In 2020, there are around 1,250 EPCIs in France (alongside 36,000 municipalities, 13 regions, etc.). These establishments can be communities of agglomerations, urban

By Comparing The Level Of Representativeness

communities, communities of communes… The list is linked at the end of the article. And open data in all of this? Communities have become essential players for citizens. Whether they act behind the scenes or in a more visible manner, the EPCIs with their own tax system provide fundamental services: the management of our waste, our water for example. EPCIs are also subject, since the Lemaire Law , to the Open data obligation, as an entity with more than 3,500 inhabitants. Indeed, the least populated of the communities is the community of municipalities of Causse de Labastide Murat, itself made up of 17 municipalities in the

heart of the Parc du Quercy, with 3,800 inhabitants. It is therefore through these EPCI that the obligation of Open data will pass for the municipalities. By mid 2020, few of these EPCIs have switched to open data. Almost 90% are not there yet.EPCI with or without Open data and population Behind this figure, which shows a delay in the implementation of the legal obligation, a third of the population has in fact access to the open data of their EPCI. Moreover, without too much surprise, we see that it is primarily the territories of the EPCIs with the largest populations that have adopted Open data in France. The only community of more than a million inhabitants without Open data is… Greater Paris. Well done! Open data and EPCI by EPCI

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