The desire to support Canada WhatsApp Number List in their guidance, during the school curriculum, has been reaffirmed and reinforced by the latest reforms. Guidance support is marked out, with hours specifically devoted to guidance . For example, in the second class, a real highlight is born with two “orientation weeks”, in the first and second trimester of the school year. To support the students, the educational teams are offered tools, courses of action and resources. In the law for “the freedom to choose one’s professional future” of 2018, a section concerns the improvement of guidance for young people. The objective is, for example, to “make people discover the fields and professions by encouraging professionals to present them in middle and high schools” .

the emergence of a higher education economy is accelerating with studies now taking on a personal investment, that is to say showing their exit routes and salaries, and consequently presenting the costs of schooling (eg: specialized master’s …). Students in private higher education institutions increased by 77% between 1998 and 2018 with more than 520,000 students while they grew by only 6% in public higher education. Now, one in five students is enrolled in a private higher education institution, up from one in eight 20 years ago. This commodification of knowledge leads to a commodification of guidance with the emergence of remunerated intermediation organizations

Organization of school guidance

New digital players are appearing and conversely, traditional players have been able to evolve with digital technology. For example, Digital Campus opened 2 new schools in Nantes and Aix-en-Provence in 2020 . The trends and industry of EdTech (startup specialized in new offers for education) are also visible The overall trend in public higher education has been towards the autonomy of universities since the LRU law of 2007. Universities have access to budgetary autonomy and management of their human resources. The State is withdrawing from universities and universities must find new sources of funding (apprenticeship, continuing education, foundation). However, this creates new budgetary


New courses or even schools linked to societal expectations are emerging, for example, in the environment sector. These new courses are responses to paradigm shifts in our societies (eg M2 “Adaptation to climate change: sustainable development and environment” from the University of Paris Saclay). dynamics within the establishments and the need to find new sources of funding for the Universities. The various public and private higher education establishments compete nationally but also internationally. In a few years, the Shanghai ranking has become a benchmark, after having been a source of rejection and then of irritation for French establishments. We are increasingly seeing a change in posture:

General high school reform

institutions must convince students to join them, by working on their attractiveness, in this more intense competitive environment. In 2000, France had 2.16 million students, in 2010, 2.32 million and in 2020 2.73 million . This increase of around 2% per year should be taken into account for higher education establishments, which must structure themselves accordingly. Initially dealt with by vast building master plans, to bring the stock and premises up to standard, the pressure to welcome and succeed students also increases with the number. In response to global competition, to develop attractiveness and consolidate real estate and human resources, universities are coming together, schools are merging.

as the Student may have been or more recently.Diplomeo . This platform allows students or employees wishing to change direction, to carry out summary skills assessments and then put them in touch with training organizations. The communities of universities and establishments (ComUE), created in 2013, facilitate the gradual structuring of these groupings between higher education and research establishments. However, these mergers bring their own problems of fusion, often starting from heterogeneous teams and teaching practices, from different cultures to align, even from brand logic, redundancies or overlapping of courses. The increase in the number of partnerships between higher education and companies is done with a view to recruiting future employees and developing skills.

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