The debate over contact Venezuela WhatsApp Number List applications revolves around the trade-off between the impact on the spread of the virus and the potential risks of personal data breaches. From a technical point of view, it opposes a priori 2 major implementation strategies: the “centralized” strategy, asking users to share their contact histories with a central server, and the “decentralized” strategy, according to which the data is stored only on the phone. It is on this opposition that the article examines. The centralized approach With the centralized approach, the organization operating the device has visibility of all users. It generates a user

identifier and stores the information it collects on a central server: at least the history of contacts between users, in other cases the identity of people or even their geolocation history. When a user declares to be infected, the operator uses the database thus constituted to identify and notify users likely to have contracted the virus. Used in particular in Australia , Norway , Poland , the United Kingdom and soon in France, this approach has the potential to provide a valuable source of information to authorities; the database can be analyzed for: Identify super- contaminating individuals and clusters of infected people and take targeted measures Monitor the progress of the epidemic in the region and adapt deconfinement

The Centralized Approach

measures But it also presents risks related to the use of the information collected: Accelerated development of population monitoring systems Operation by third-party companies: the Care19 application, deployed by the authorities of North Dakota and South Dakota in the United States, for example shared user data with the social network Foursquare (link in English) Attempts at targeted attacks to access data fraudulently: this risk is all the higher as the context of a pandemic justifies accelerated development of the solution The decentralized approach With the decentralized approach, the organization operating the device does not


collect any user data by default. A “crypto-identifier” or anonymous identifier code is generated and stored locally on the phone, the contacts detected by Bluetooth are also stored locally. If a user is diagnosed as being infected, he has the possibility of communicating his crypto-identifier to the “diagnostic server” of the operator of the device. This server transmits the crypto-identifier and its “infected” status to all users. Each user’s phone will regularly receive the list of “infected” crypto-identifiers and compare it to the locally saved contact list to identify potential contamination risks. Many countries -May 23-21, 2020 – have initiated application development programs with the decentralized approach, these programs follow the guidelines

The Decentralized Approach

set out by Apple and Google *. The interest of the decentralized approach lies in: Respect for the personal data it promises; user data does not leave the phone except for the crypto-identifier of users declaring themselves infected Potential cross-compatibility of applications from different countries if they follow Apple and Google guidelines, which would allow wider coverage of the population The drawback of this approach goes hand in hand with its main interest: intentionally restricting the flow of information, it will not allow statistical analysis. * Apple and Google supply and maintain the operating systems of 100% of smartphones sold worldwide in 2019 . To facilitate digital contact tracing, the 2 companies allow applications designed by

the authorities to override a restriction on Bluetooth use if these applications comply with certain user data management rules. The decentralized approach is part of these rules. The announcement of this possibility did not put an end to the development of centralized devices, in Australia for example (link in English), the COVIDSafe application regularly generates notifications with the sole aim of not being closed by the system. operation. Conclusion Digital contact tracing initiatives carry the hope of an industrialized solution to the spread of the virus, but beyond the processing of information, its impact also rests on the accuracy of the technology: what is the level of reliability of “contacts”? »Recorded using Bluetooth? To what extent do

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