In France, more than 4.5 Nepal WhatsApp Number List people have diabetes¹. A worldwide quota which continues to increase, which makes diabetes one of the main killers in the world, according to the WHO (just that…!). Fortunately, the significant advance in research over the past decades now allows diabetics to access a wide range of increasingly flexible and effective treatments. Diabetes reminder (for anyone who thinks it’s just a disease of the elderly) Diabetes is a problem with the assimilation of sugars from food, and results in high blood glucose levels.² There are 2 main types: Type 1 (6% of cases): total absence of insulin production by the

pancreas, autoimmune disease with no real predefined cause. Type 2 (90% of cases): insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas or resistance to it, linked to a poor lifestyle. There are also other rarer forms of diabetes (gestational, MODY, LADA…). From syringe to connected artificial pancreas: chronology of treatments Before the discovery of insulin (1921), type 1 diabetics were doomed to certain death. Insulin being the essential hormone which regulates the blood sugar level. A brief history of treatments for diabetes (complete here): 1921 – discovery of insulin by F. Banting, C. Best and J. MacLeod. It was therefore injected

The “Internal And Invisible” Part Of The

daily (and approximately) to diabetics by syringes. Extracted from beef and pork pancreas, it will take 60 years to obtain synthetic human insulin. 1962 – arrival of glucometers (or “blood glucose meters ”), which, thanks to their enzyme electrodes, make it possible to measure the blood sugar level in a more precise and autonomous way, then transportable. 1980 – first external “insulin pump” , replacing the pancreas (and injections). Thanks to a device connected to a catheter, the diabetic no longer has to prick himself and the pump administers insulin continuously. First insulin pump 1963 – Dr Arnold Kadish 1980 to 2010 – constant


evolution : laboratories in medical companies improve the production of insulin and blood glucose meters. The pump models are evolving and diversifying: first remote control boxes, then wireless “patch” pumps. These advances allow diabetics to acquire flexibility and autonomy in the management of their disease. Modern wireless patch insulin pump 2014 – first continuous blood glucose monitoring device . Diabetics are now equipped with “patches” on the arm, capable of measuring blood sugar and communicating it directly to a device or smartphone via an NFC function. The measured sugar level is no longer just a number

The Paradox Between Top-down

at an instant T, but a trend curve facilitating the management and anticipation of variations. Mobile App Readable Blood Glucose Sensor (NFC) Arrival of insulin pumps in “closed loop” : a continuous measurement device communicates with the insulin pump, capable of adapting the dosage in the event of a risk of discomfort. These devices are still little marketed and reserved for a part of the population of priority type 1 diabetics (pregnancy, very unstable diabetes, etc.). Human intervention is always necessary to adjust the doses. Overall, the last ten years have marked the beginning of a new era in diabetes management

management of this disease. Through a survey carried out by us, we were able to identify the various plans impacted by these improvements. This September 2020 survey includes the return of 110 diabetics³. From the outset, we note that 96% of respondents use the continuous blood glucose monitoring system (supported since 2017). Only 14% of them believe they could go back and use the classic system. For the insulin pump, 79% of users could not return to conventional injections. As shown in the previous graph, living comfort was pointed out as the most significant positive element linked to the arrival of these devices

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